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Israel in the Middle East
Documents and Readings on Society, Politics, and Foreign Relations, Pre-1948 to the Present
Itamar Rabinovich, ed.; Jehuda Reinharz, ed.

Brandeis University Press



Contents

List of Maps
• Preface
• Introduction

• Zionism and the Mandate, 1882–1948
Timeline
Manifesto, Summer 1882 – Bilu
Auto-Emancipation, October 17, 1882 – Leon Pinsker
A Solution of the Jewish Question, January 17, 1896 – Theodor Herzl
The Basle Program, August 31, 1897 – First Zionist Congress
The First Zionist Congress, August–September 1897 – Ahad Ha’am
The Collective, 1904–1909: Memoir – Manya Shochat
Balfour Declaration, November 2, 1917 – Lord Balfour, for the British Cabinet
Zionist Manifesto, December 21, 1917London Bureau of the Zionist Organization
Palestine White Paper, June 3, 1922 Winston Churchill, for the British Government
Mandate for Palestine, July 24, 1922 – Council of the League of Nations
The Iron Wall, November 4, 1923 – Vladimir (Zeev) Jabotinsky
Report Conclusions, July 7, 1937 – Peel Commission
The Arab Awakening, 1938 – George Antonius
White Paper, May 17, 1939 – Malcolm MacDonald, for the British Government
The Biltmore Program, May 11, 1942 – Emergency Committee of Zionist Affairs
Charter, March 22, 1945 – League of Arab States
Status-Quo Agreement, June 19, 1947 – David Ben-Gurion, for the Jewish Agency Executive
Proposals to the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, July 23, 1947 – Ihud
Resolution 181, November 29, 1947 – United Nations General Assembly
Meeting of the National Administration and the Formation of a
• Provisional Government of Israel,
May 12, 1948: Memoir – Zeev Sharef

The New State of Israel, 1948–1956
Timeline
• Domestic Issues
Proclamation of the State of Israel,May 14, 1948 – Jewish Agency Executive
The War of Independence, May 1948: Memoir – David Ben-Gurion
First Ordinance of the State of Israel, May 19, 1948 – Provisional Government of Israel
Ordinance on the Israel Defense Forces, May 26, 1948 – Provisional Government of Israel
Declaration of a Provisional Palestinian Civil Administration, July 10, 1948 – League of Arab States
Resolution 194, December 11, 1948 – United Nations General Assembly
Jewish Religion and Israeli Democracy, 1948–1953: Memoir and Analysis – Isaac Olshan
The Debate on a Constitution, February 1 and
• June 13, 1950 – Israel First Knesset
The Law of Return, July 5, 1950 – Israel First Knesset
The Absorption of Immigrants, August 1951 – Giora Josephtal
The German Reparations, December 1951–March 1952:
• Memoir – Nahum Goldmann
The Transformation of the Israeli Army, 1952–1955: Memoir – Moshe Dayan
Memorandum on the Mishap in Egypt, October 1954 – Benyamin Givli •
• Foreign Policy Issues
The Jordanian-Israeli Negotiations, March 22–23, 1949: Memoir – Abdullah al-Tal
Armistice Agreement between Syria and Israel, July 20, 1949
Report Conclusions, November 20, 1951 – United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine
The Challenge of the Fedayeen, February–August 1955: Analysis – Ehud Yaari
Israel’s Foreign and Middle Eastern Policy, May 28, 1955 - Moshe Sharett
The Clash with David Ben-Gurion over Defense Policies, July 31, 1955 - Moshe Sharett
The Quest for Arms, 1948–1967: Memoir – Shimon Peres
The Anderson Mission, January–March 1956: Memoir – Yaacov Herzog
The Background to the Sinai Campaign, November 1956: Memoir – Yaacov Herzog
Israel and the Jewish Diaspora, 1948–1959: Analysis – Walter Eytan

From the Sinai Campaign to the Six-Day War, 1956–1967
Timeline
• Domestic Issues
The Development Town, 1956–1966: Analysis – Emmanuel Marx
Social and Ethnic Tensions in Wadi Salib, 1959: Memoir – David Ben-Gurion
The Capture of Adolf Eichmann, May 24 and August 8, 1960 – David Ben-Gurion
The Lavon Affair, 1961: Analysis – J. L. Talmon
Jewish Religion and Israeli Nationality: The Brother Daniel Case, March 14, November 19, December 6, 1962 – Israel Supreme Court
The Transition from David Ben-Gurion to Levi Eshkol, June 1963: Memoir – Teddy Kollek
The Formation of a Center–Right-Wing Bloc, February–May 1965: Memoir – Yohanan Bader
From “Israeli Arabs” to “Israel’s Palestinian Citizens,”1948–1996: Analysis – Itamar Rabinovich
• Foreign Policy Issues
The Formulation of the Eisenhower Doctrine, January–March 1957 – Dwight David Eisenhower
David Ben-Gurion and the Policy of the Periphery, 1958: Analysis – Michael Bar-Zohar
David Ben-Gurion and Israel’s Regional and International Position, 1958: Analysis – Michael Bar-Zohar
Israel’s Beginnings in Africa, 1956–1973: Memoir – Ehud Avriel
American Arms for Israel, 1960–1964: Memoir – Shimon Peres
The Arab Summit Conferences, May 31, 1965 – Gamal Abdul Nasser
The Conflict with Israel, March 1966 – Syrian Ba’ath Party
The Last Stages of the Crisis, May 1967: Memoir – Yitzhak Rabin
The Nasser-Hussein Reconciliation, May 1967: Memoir – Zayd al-Rifa’i

Years of Euphoria, 1967–1973
Timeline
• Domestic Issues
Administering the West Bank, June 1967: Analysis – Shabtai Teveth
The Conflict between Moshe Dayan and Pinhas Sapir, 1968: Analysis – Shabtai Teveth
The Israeli Left, 1970: Analysis – Amnon Rubinstein
The Black Panthers, 1971: Analysis – Lea Ben-Dor
• Foreign Policy Issues
The Land-for-Peace Principle, June 19, 1967 – Government of Israel
The Soviet Union and the Six-Day War, June 19, 1967 – Alexei Kosygin
The Khartoum Resolutions, September 1, 1967 – Fourth Arab Summit Conference
Resolution 242, November 22, 1967 – United Nations Security Council
The Palestine National Charter, July 17, 1968 – Palestine Liberation Organization
The War of Attrition, 1968–1970: Memoir – Ezer Weizman
The Jordanian Crisis, September 1970: Memoir – Yitzhak Rabin
Political Program, January 12, 1973 – Palestine Liberation Organization
The Eve of the Yom Kippur War, Spring–Summer 1973: Memoir – Hanoch Bartov
The Turning Point in the Yom Kippur War, October 16, 1973 – David Elazar
The Yom Kippur War, October 1973: Analysis – Mordechai Gazit

War, Peace, and War Again, 1973–1982
Timeline
• Domestic Issues
Interim Report, April 1, 1974 – Agranat Commission
The Protest Movements in the Aftermath of the Yom Kippur War, June 7, 1974 – Motti Ashkenazi
Israel’s Road to Feminism, 1973–2000: Analysis – Hanna Herzog
Prospects for the New Government, May 19–20, 1977 – Menahem Begin
The Ideology of the National Religious Party, 1977: Analysis – Yehuda Ben-Meir
Opinion Paper, January 1978 – Gush Emunim
A Soviet Jewish Intellectual Abroad, December 1978 – Simon Markish
• M
anifesto, March 25, 1979 – National Committee for the Defense of Arab Lands
Platform, 1980 – Peace Now
The 1981 Elections, Fall 1981: Analysis – Asher Arian
• Foreign Policy Issues
Resolution 338, October 22, 1973 – United Nations Security Council
Decision to Accept Resolution 338, October 22, 1973 – Israeli Cabinet
The Six-Point Agreement between Egypt and Israel, November 11, 1973
Sixth Arab Summit Conference, Algiers, Overview and Resolutions, November 28, 1973 – League of Arab States
Egyptian-Israeli Disengagement, December 1973–January 1974: Analysis – William B. Quandt
Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and Israel, January 18, 1974
Seventh Arab Summit Conference, Rabat Resolutions, October 29, 1974 – League of Arab States
Political Program, June 9, 1974 – Palestine Liberation Organization
Disengagement Agreement between Egypt and Israel, September 4, 1975
Memorandum of Agreement between the United States and Israel regarding the Geneva Peace Conference, September 17, 1975
Resolution 3379 (Anti-Zionist Resolution), November 10, 1975 – United Nations General Assembly
Speech to the General Assembly on the Anti-Zionist Resolution, November 10, 1975 – Chaim Herzog
The United States and the Palestinian Issue, December 1, 1975 – Harold H. Saunders
Yigal Allon in the Palace of the Shah, August 1976: Memoir – Uri Lubrani
Speeches to the Knesset, November 20, 1977 – Anwar Sadat and Menahem Begin
Autonomy Plan, December 28, 1977 – Government of Israel
Resolutions 425 and 426, March 19, 1978 – United Nations Security Council
Camp David Accords, September 17, 1978
Peace Treaty between Israel and Egypt, March 26, 1979
The West Bank and Gaza within the Framework of a Middle East Peace Settlement, 1948–1979: Analysis – Yigal Allon
A Survey of Israel’s Contacts with Jordan, April 25, 1980: Analysis – Moshe Zak
The Reagan Peace Plan, September 1, 1982 – Ronald Reagan
The War in Lebanon, Summer 1982: Memoir – Ariel Sharon
Report on the 1982 War in Lebanon, February 7, 1983 – Kahan Commission

From War in Lebanon to Hope for Peace in Madrid, 1982–1991
Timeline
• Domestic Issues
On Behalf of Pluralism, December 1982 – Amos Oz
The New Historiography: Israel Confronts Its Past, Autumn 1988: Analysis of 1947–1949 – Benny Morris
The “New Historians”: The Past Is Not a Foreign Country, 1988–1996: Analysis – Anita Shapira
The Quandaries of an Israeli Minister of Absorption, 1989–1994: Memoir – Yair Tzaban
The Ethiopian Emigration, May 1991: Memoir – Micha Feldman
• Foreign Policy Issues
The Hezbollah Program: An Open Letter, February 16, 1985 – Hezbollah
The London Agreement between Jordan and Israel, April 11, 1987
The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement, August 18, 1988 – Hamas
The Madrid Middle East Peace Conference, October 30–November 2, 1991: Memoir – James A. Baker

• Chapter 7.
A Decade of Hope, 1991–2000
Timeline
• Domestic Issues
Position Papers, 1988 – Meimad
Speech to the Knesset on the 1992 Elections, July 13, 1992 – Yitzhak Rabin
Alice Miller v. Minister of Defense, November 8, 1995 – Israel Supreme Court
United Mizrahi Bank v. Migdal Cooperative Village, November 9, 1995 – Israel Law Review
Report on Yitzhak Rabin’s Assassination, 1996 – Shamgar Commission
Arye Deri’s Speech of April 23, 1997: Analysis – Aryeh Dayan
Report on the Conversion Law, January 22, 1998 – Neeman Commission
Arab Citizens of Palestine: Little to Celebrate, 1998:Analysis – Azmi Bishara
A Russian Immigrant Looks at Israeli (or Jewish?) Culture, 1998: Analysis – Anna Isakova
The 1996 and 1999 Elections in Israel, 1996, 1999: Analysis – Reuven Y. Hazan
Between the Lines of the Election Results, May 24, 1999 – Avirama Golan
Report on Clashes between the Security Forces and Israeli Citizens in October 2000, September 1, 2003 – Orr Commission
Revolution and Counterrevolution: The Israel Supreme Court from the 1980s Onward, 1980–2004: Analysis – Ehud Eiran
• Foreign Policy Issues
The Israeli-Syrian Negotiations, August 1993: Analysis – Itamar Rabinovich
Oslo Accords between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, September 13, 1993
Peace Treaty between Jordan and Israel, October 26, 1994
Speech to the Knesset, October 27, 1994 – William Jefferson Clinton
Opposition to Any Accommodation with Israel, 1992, 1994, 1997, 1999 – Hamas
Oslo II Accords between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, September 28, 1995
Amendment to the Palestine National Charter,
May 4, 1996 – Palestinian Authority
Wye River Memorandum between Israel and the Palestine Liberation
• Organization,
October 23, 1998
The Appeal of the Palestinian People on the Fiftieth Anniversary of al-Naqba, 1948–1998 – Mahmoud Darwish
Resolution on Withdrawal from Lebanon, March 5, 2000 – Government of Israel
Proposal for Israeli-Palestinian Peace, December 23, 2000 – William Jefferson Clinton
Evolution of Palestinian-Israeli Negotiations, 2000–2001: Analysis – Martin Indyk
Mitchell Report, May 4, 2001 – Sharm el-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee

• Postscript, after 2000
• Timeline
The Arab Peace Initiative (Beirut Declaration), March 28, 2002 – League of Arab States
Remarks on the Middle East, June 24, 2002 – George W. Bush
A Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, April 30, 2003 – Government of the United States
Israel and Iraq after the Fall of Saddam Hussein, March 2004 – Gal Luft
Resolution regarding the Disengagement Plan, June 6, 2004 – Government of Israel
Speech to the World without Zionism Conference, Teheran, October 28, 2005 – Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Speech to the Arab Lawyers Union Annual Convention, January 21, 2006 – Bashar al-Assad
Speech to the Knesset on Israel’s New Government, May 4, 2006 – Ehud Olmert
Speech to the Knesset on the Israeli-Hezbollah Summer War, July 17, 2006 – Ehud Olmert
Resolution 1701, August 11, 2006 – United Nations Security Council
Speech at the Rabin Memorial Ceremony, Tel Aviv, November 4, 2006 – David Grossman

• Appendices
• Appendix 1. Presidents of the State of Israel, 1949–2007
• Appendix 2. Chiefs of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, 1939–2007
• Appendix 3. Governments of Israel, 1948–2006
• Appendix 4. Valid Votes for Prime Minister Elections, 1996, 1999, 2001
• Appendix 5. Jewish and Non-Jewish Population of Palestine-Israel, 1517–2004
• Appendix 6. Jewish Settlements Established in Palestine, Israel, and the Administered Territories by Region and Period of Settlement, before 1870–1997
• Appendix 7. Immigration to Israel, 1948–2004
• Appendix 8. Immigrants to Israel from Arab Countries, 1948–2004
• Appendix 9. American Immigration to Israel, 1948–2004
• Appendix 10. Jewish Immigration to Israel from the Soviet Union and Former Soviet Union, 1968–2004
• Appendix 11. Change in Level of Consumer Price Indices, 1973–2005
• Appendix 12. Number of Institutions and Students in the Educational System, 1948–2005

• Glossary
• Index

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