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The Shapes of Our Singing
A Comprehensive Guide to Verse Forms and Metres from Around the World
Robin Skelton

Eastern Washington University Press



Contents

• Introduction

• ANGLO-SAXON
• Alliterative Verse: The Love Song
Strict Alliterative Verse I: Relaxed
• Strict Alliterative Verse II: The Start of Spring
• Strict Alliterative Verse III: In Grief
• Strict Alliterative Verse IV: November Ending
• Strict Alliterative Verse V: News Item

• ARABIC
• Hazaj Metre: Thorn Trees
• Mutaqarib Metre: Leaf Dance
• Qasidah in the Basit Metre: Sandstorm
• Rajaz Metre: Aftermath
• Sari Metre: Sea Coast
• Tawil Metre: Entertainer
• Urjuzah Metre: Myth
• Wafir Metre: The Remembered Ones

• BENGALI
• Payar: Monsoon
• Tripadi: Near Chakrata

• BRETON
• Octosyllabic Couplets: By the Lake

• BURMESE
• Than-bauk: Dreams
• Ya-du: In Winter

• CATALAN
• Tetrasyllabic couplets: Garden Nightfall

• CHINESE
• Ch'i-yen-shih: Alternatively
• Chueh-chu I: Moontruth
• Chueh-chu II: Prairie Summer
• Ssu-yen-shih: Song
• Wu-yen-shih: Pools and Wells

• CLASSICAL GREEK & LATIN
• Adonics: Parthenon
• Alcaics: The Garden at Dawn
• Alcmanic Metre: Invocation
• Amphibrachic Trimeter: Island of Wine
• Anacreontics: Athens
• Anapaestic Dimeter: The Dance
• Antispastic Dimeter: Artemis
• Archilochean Metre: Akroteri
• Asclepiadean Metre I: Santorini
• Asclepiadean Metre II: Pros, Recalling Demosthenes
• Bacchiacs: After the Museum
• Bacchics: Chant
• Choliambics: Island Harbour
• Choriambic Dimeter: The Acropolis
• Cretic Metre: Alternatives
• Dactylic Hexameter: Morning Song
• Dactylo-Epitrite: Harbourside
• Dochmiac Dimeter: November
• Elegiac Couplets: Handfast
• Enoplius: Red Tree
• Epitrite Dimeter I: Drowned Island
• Epitrite Dimeter II: Storm
• Epitrite Dimeter III: Inconclusive
• Epitrite Dimeter IV: November Once More
• Galliambs: Mykonos
• Glyconics: At Rhodes
• Glyconic Stanzas: Girl Waiting
• Hemiepes: Swallows
• Hendecasyllabics: Nightwords
• Iambelegus: The Deities
• Iambic Trimeter: Aegina
• Ionic a Majore: Chthonic
• Ionic a Minore: Nocturne
• Ithyphallics: In Homage
• Paeon I: Contemplating It
• Paeon II: Frivolity in Age
• Paeon III: Island Temple
• Paeon IV: Daybreak
• Paroemiac: Inscription
• Penthemimer: Sky God
• Phalaecean Metre: Lesbos
• Pheracratean Metre: In Darkness
• Priapean Metre: Expiation
• Prosodiakon: Prosodion
• Reizianum: Aegean Interlude
• Rhopalic Verse: Academic Note
• Sapphics: The Isles of Greece
• Saturnian Metre: The Statue
• Senarius Metre: Hydra
• Skolion: Skolion
• Sotradean Metre: What the Rain Says
• Telesillean: Temple of the Goddess
• Trochaic Tetrameter: In the Museum
• Versus Spondaicus: Day's End

• CORNISH
• 14th Century Stanza: No End to It

• CZECH
• 14th Century Traditional Couplets: Bonfire Day

• ENGLISH
• Acrostic: A Birthday Card
• Alexandrine Couplets: Herself; a Footnote
• Ballad: A Ballad of Despair
• Blank Verse: The Farewell
• Blues Stanzas: Autumn Rain
• Burns Stanza: In Twilight
• Carol I: Carol for Yule
• Carol II: In the Hospice
• Catena Rondo: Sun Setting
• Cinquain: The Daybreak
• Rhymed Cinquain: At Dawn
• Common Measure: Penny Whistle
• Clerihew: In Summary
• Cumulating Verse: Again October
• Diminishing Verse: Churchgoing
• Diminishing and Cumulating Verse: True Story
• Disyllabics: The Roses
• Double Dactyls: Two Poets of Canada
• Echo Verse I: The Dark Well
• Echo Verse II: Oracle
• English Quintet I: The Rain
• English Quintet II: In Plain Words
• Heroic Couplets: Above
• Hudibrastic Verse: The Welcome
• In Memoriam Stanzas: Obiter Dicta
• Limerick: Dramatis Personae
• Long Measure: In Those Days
• Madrigal: Narcissist
• Novem: Time Passing
• Palindrome: Lest We Forget
• Short Madrigal: Night Piece
• Madsong Stanza: In Dusk
• Poulter's Measure: Crow Message
• Primer Couplets: Crow on a Bough
• Rime Royal: Samhain in Perugia
• Roundel: The Hand
• Roundelay: Tether's End
• English Rubai: Maya
• Interlocking Rubaiyat: Night Vision
• Short Hymnal Stanza: The Street
• Short Particular Measure: Birch
• Skeltonics: The Hidden
• Caudate Sonnet: After Long Absence
• Curtal Sonnet: Slow Music
• Shakespearean Sonnet: The Biographers
• Spenserian Sonnet: Ghost Story
• Spenserian Stanzas: Anima
• Split Couplet: Leaf
• Triversen: The Hill
• Trisyllabics: At Brentwood
• Tudor Lyric: Marsh Cottage Revisited
• Viator I: Dover Beach Revisited
• Viator II: Aging
• Double Viator: Evening

• ETHIOPIAN
• Mawaddes: Felinity

• FINNISH
• Kalevala Metre: Cavern

• FRENCH
• Ballade: Changes
• Double Refrain Ballade: Night Thoughts, Bosnia
• Ballade Supreme: Discoveries
• Bref Double: Downfall
• Chant Royal: Serena
• Dizain: At Goldstream
• Huitain: Unsurprising
• Kyrielle I: Portrait of an Unknown Lady
• Kyrielle II: Cornish Summer
• Kyrielle III: Gone Away
• Lai: On the Coast
• Lai Nouveau: Song for Beltaine I
• Ode (Ronsard's Form): At Sunset, Waiting
• Pantoum: In an Abandoned Cemetery
• Rondeau: Full Moon
• Rondeau Redouble: Spring in the Okanagan
• Rondel: The Visitation
• Rondel Supreme: Methuselah's Song
• Rondelet: Grandmother: A Portrait in Petit-point
• Rondine: Night Watch
• Spondaic Triolet: Lullaby for Veronica Violet
• Tautogram: Temporal
• Reverdie: Spring
• Rimas Dissolutas: Completion
• Rime Couee: Ignorance
• Rime Riche: Speaking of Grass
• Triolet: The Suggestion
• Villanelle: The Pursuit
• Virelai: Song for Beltaine II

• GERMAN
• Knittelvers: Sleight of Hand
• Nibelungen Stanza: Wood in August
• Shuttelreim: Threesome

• HEBREW
• Abecedarius: In the Art Museum
• Traditional: At Delphi

• HINDI
• Doha: Distrust

• IRISH
• Ae Freslige: Two in a Garden
• Breccbairdne: Spring Sprung
• Casbairdne: The Wilderness
• Cethramtu Rannaigechta Moire: Observation
• Cro Cumaisc Etir Casbairdni Ocus Lethrannaigecht: Time Past
• Dechnad Cummaisc: Beehive Huts, West Kerry
• Dechnadh Mor: The Wood at Evening
• Deibide: Young
• Deibide Baise Fri Toin: For a Newborn God-Daughter
• Deibide Guilbnech: By the Lake
• Deibide Guilbnech Dialtach: The Visitant
• Droigneach: Samhain
• Lethrannaigecht Mor: Connemara
• Rannaigecht: Outcrop
• Rannaigecht Bec I: The Making of Music
• Rannaigecht Bec II: Against Learning
• Rannaigecht Mor: The Names
• Rannaigecht Mor Gairit: Crepuscule
• Rinnard: Rowan
• Rinnard Tri-nard: Alba
• Seadna: Intermission
• Seadna Mor: Pike
• Snam Suad: The Old Ones
• Sned-bairdne: Orchard Incident
• Treochair: The Toys
• Trian Rannaigechta Moire: On the Moor
• Unnamed (Murphy 8): The Well
• Unnamed (Murphy 12): At Knocknarea
• Unnamed (Murphy 18): Playing the Game

• ITALIAN
• Canzone: In the Ninth Month
• Decima Italiana: Samhain in Perugia II
• Italian Octave: In Passing
• Italian Quatrain: Milan Cathedral
• Italian Sestet: Her
• Ottava Rima: Perugia Nocturne
• Petrarchan Sonnet: First Words
• Rispetto I: The Voice
• Rispetto II: The Lake
• Sestina: Peace
• Rhymed Sestina: Night Blossom in April
• Sicilian Octave: At the End of the Day
• Sicilian Quintet: Love in an English Garden
• Sicilian Septet: That Dream Again
• Sicilian Sestet: The Excavation
• Sicilian Sonnet: Gentle Ghost
• Sicilian Tercet: Dichotomy
• Stornello: Shape Changers
• Strambotto: Timing
• Terzanelle: Coracha Cagalt
• Terza Rima: Verse on a Birthday
• Terza Rima Sonnet: Unanswerable

• JAPANESE
• Choka: The Tradition
• Dodoitsu: In Passing
• Haiku: Conte
• Imayo: Nightwalker
• Iroha Mojigusari: The Trophy Room
• Katauta: Proposal
• Kouta (I): Renewals
• Kouta (II): In Age
• Mondo: Tide Talk
• Renga: Are You There?
• Sedoka: Under the Apple Tree
• Senryu: Not Really
• Somonka: Brief Encounter
• Waka: Magical

• JAVANESE
• Kakawin Stanza, Sardula-Vikridata Metre: Nearing the End
• Tengahan Wokir: On the Shore

• KASHIMIRI
• Vakh: Thoughts at Evening

• KOREAN
• Kasa: Night Dance
• Sijo: In the Fall

• LATIN
• Goliardic Verse: Autumn Evening

• LATVIAN
• Daina: Summer

• MALAY
• Pantun: After the Battle

• MARATHI
• Abhanga: Visak
• Ovi: Samungli

• MONGOLIAN
• Traditional Metre: Sometimes

• OCCITAN
• Dansa: Idee Fixe

• OLD NORSE
• Drottkvaett: Workshop
• Fornyroislag: O Tempora
• Hrynhent: Riverside
• Kviouhattr: After the Rain
• Ljooahattr: In the Olympics
• Malahattr: The Fir
• Runnhent: Crows in Oak Bay

• PERSIAN
• Hazaj Metre: Hurricane
• Mathnavi in the Mutaquarib Metre: Leaf Requiem
• Mujtass Metre: Ghazal for Saki
• Muzari Metre: Goldstream Climax
• Ramal Metre I: Street Scene
• Ramal Metre II: Winter
• Rubai: Night Thoughts

• PRAKRIT
• Arya Metre: Crawlspace

• RUSSIAN
• Dolnik: Dawn
• Onegin Stanza: On the Beach

• SANSKRIT
• Anustubh Metre: Listening
• Drutavilambita Metre: Into the Depths
• Indravajira / Upendravajira Metre: Snapshot
• Jakati Metre: Sleeping Out, New Delhi
• Sardula-Vikridita Metre: Time Sleeps
• Tristubh Metre: By the Wall

• SPANISH
• Copla de Arte Mayor: Sleepless
• Cueca Chilena: The End of It
• Cuaderna Via: On a June Evening
• Endecha: To Liam Miller
• Espinela: Laburnum
• Flamenca: Nocturne
• Foia: The Forge at Sundown
• Glose: The Memories
• Lira: Dawn Meadow
• Mote: Amherst October
• Pregunta I: A Question of Definition
• Pregunta II: Question Time
• Quintilla: Spring Dawn
• Redondilla: The Afternoon
• Seguidilla: Sculpsit
• Sextilla: Filey Brigg Revisited
• Soledad: In July
• Zejel: In Age

• SUMERIAN
• Sumerian Stanza: Her Beauty

• SWAHILI
• Muyaka Stanza: Conch

• TAMIL
• Aciriyappa Metre: Outside the Village
• Kali Metre: Bubbles
• Venpa Metre: The Dreams

• THAI
• Totok: The Poet Confesses

• TIBETAN
• Gzha: Spring Lament

• VIETNAMESE
• Luc-bat I: Nightsong
• Luc-bat II: Her Face

• WELSH
• A Note on Cynghanedd
• Awdl Gywydd: Dawn Mist
• Byr a Thoddaid: After the Storm
• Clogyrnach: Again and Again
• Cyhydedd fer: The Log
• Cyhydedd hir: The Decision
• Cyhydedd naw ban: Seaborn
• Cyrch a Chwta: Westfield Lane Revisited
• Cywydd Deuair Fyrion: Carillon
• Cywydd Deuair Hirion I: That Evening
• Cywydd Deuair Hirion II: Speechless
• Cywydd Llosgyrnog: Dimlington Heights
• Englyn Byr Crwca: Full Moon
• Englyn Cyrch: The Cliff
• Englyn Lledfbroest: In Boyhood
• Englyn Milwr I: Love's Wisdom
• Englyn Milwr II: The Hearing
• Englyn Penfyr: May Day
• Englyn Proest Dalgron: All
• Englyn Proest Gadwynog: Somnium
• Englyn Unodl Crwca: Humberside, 1939
• Englyn Unodl Union: Fulfillments
• Gwawdodyn: Clair de Lune
• Gwawdodyn Byr: Ammunition Nation
• Gwawdodyn Hir: Shore Birds
• Hir a Thoddaid: Stone Music
• Rhupunt: The Mark
• Long Rhupunt: The Knowledge
• Twaddgyrch Cadwynog: Ars Longa
• Toddaid: On the Mountain

• YIDDISH
• Folk Metre I: Night Walk
• Folk Metre II: West Coast December
• Folk Metre III: Concluding

Sat, 2 Dec 2017 14:43:02 -0500