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When Robots Kill
Artificial Intelligence under Criminal Law
Gabriel Hallevy

Northeastern University Press



Contents

• Preface
• THE EMERGENCE OF
MACHINA SAPIENS CRIMINALIS
• The Endless Quest for Machina Sapiens
• History and Prehistory of Artificial Intelligence
• Defining Artificial Intelligence, and the Endlessness of the Quest for
Machina Sapiens
• Turning Disadvantages into Advantages: Industrial and Private Use of Artificial Intelligence
• On Evolution and Devolution:
Machina Sapiens Criminalis
• Serve and Protect: Human Fears of Human-Robot Coexistence
• Evolution and Devolution:
Machina Sapiens Criminalis as a By-product
• Inapplicability of the Zoological Legal Model to AI Technology
• The Modern Offender
• Basic Requirements for a Given Offense
• Requirements of a Given Offense: Modern Criminal Liability as a Matrix of Minimalism
• The Case of Nonhuman Corporations (Round 1)
• AI CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR INTENTIONAL OFFENSES
• The Factual Element Requirement
• Conduct
• Circumstances
• Results and Causal Connection
• The Mental Element Requirement
• Structure of the
Mens Rea Requirement
• Fulfillment of the Cognitive Aspect
• Fulfillment of the Volitive Aspect
• Criminally Liable Entities for Intentional AI Offenses
• AI Entity Liability
• Human Liability: Perpetration-through-Another
• Joint Human and AI Entity Liability: Probable Consequence Liability
• Closing the Opening Example: Intentional Killing Robot
• AI CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR NEGLIGENCE OFFENSES
• The Factual Element Requirement
• The Mental Element Requirement
• Structure of Negligence Requirement
• Fulfillment of the Negligence Requirement: Is Objectivity Subjective?
• Criminally Liable Entities for AI Negligence Offenses
• AI Entity Liability
• Human Liability: Perpetration-through-Another and Semi-Innocent Agents
• Joint Human and AI Entity Liability: Probable Consequence Liability
• Closing the Opening Example: Negligent Killing Robot
• AI CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR STRICT LIABILITY OFFENSES
• The Factual Element Requirement
• The Mental Element Requirement
• Structure of Strict Liability Requirement
• Fulfillment of Strict Liability: Making the Factual Become Mental
• Criminally Liable Entities for AI Strict Liability Offenses
• AI Entity Liability
• Human Liability: Perpetration-through-Another
• Joint Human and AI Entity Liability: Probable Consequence Liability
• Closing the Opening Example: Strict Liable Killing Robot
• APPLICABILITY OF GENERAL DEFENSES TO AI CRIMINAL LIABILITY
• The Function of General Defenses in Criminal Law
• Exemptions
• Infancy
• Loss of Self-Control
• Insanity
• Intoxication
• Factual Mistake
• Legal Mistake
• Substantive Immunity
• Justifications
• Self-Defense
• Necessity
• Duress
• Superior Orders
De Minimis
• Closing the Opening Example: Robot Killing in Self-Defense
• SENTENCING AI
• Conceptual Applicability of Criminal Punishment of AI Entities
• AI Purpose of Sentencing: Combining Rehabilitation and Incapacitation
• The Legal Technique of Conversion: The Case of Corporations (Round 2)
• Applicability of Punishments to AI Entities
• Capital Punishment
• Imprisonment and Suspended Imprisonment
• Probation
• Public Service
• Fine
• Closing the Opening Example: Sentencing the Killing Robot
• Conclusions
• Notes
• Selected Bibliography
• Index



Wed, 18 Oct 2017 13:58:58 -0500