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Pious and Rebellious
Jewish Women in Medieval Europe
Avraham Grossman

Brandeis University Press



Contents

• INTRODUCTION

• The Historical Background
• Sources
• The Chronological and Geographical Framework
• THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN: PARTNER OR THE "OTHER"?
• The Creation and the Superiority of Man
• The Temptation in the Garden of Eden and the Superiority of Man
• Characteristics of Woman and the Superiority of Man
• Women and Sorcery
• The "Medical Inferiority" of Women and the Superiority of Men
• The Obligation to Perform Mitzvot and the Superiority of Man
• Expressions in Praise of Women and their Perception as "Partner"
• Between Image and Reality
• AGE AT MARRIAGE
• The Talmudic Heritage
• The Sitation in Babylonia in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries
• The Situation in Non-Jewish Society
• The Situation in Jewish Society during the Tenth through Thirteenth Centuries
• Factors Causing the Large Number of Childhood Marriages
• Results of Early Marriage
• ENGAGEMENT, BETROTHAL, AND THE CHOICE OF A MARRIAGE PARTNER
• The Ceremonies and their Development
• The Ban in Ashkenaz against Cancelling Engagements
• Choice of Marriage Partner
• Consensual MArriage in Christian Europe
• The Institution of Matchmaking and Its Place in Jewish Society
• MONOGAMY AND POLYGAMY
• The Biblical and Talmudic Heritage
• The Situation in Ashkenaz
• Polygamy in Spain
• The Atmosphere in the Polygamous Family
• Levirate Marriage and Bigamy
• FEMININE MODESTY AND WOMEN'S ROLE IN SUPPORTING THE FAMILY
• The Talmudic Tradition
• Modesty in Muslim Society
• Modesty in Jewish Society in Muslim Countries
• The "Miqveh Rebellion" in Egypt
• The Sitation in Jewish Society in Spain
• Feminine Modesty and Women's Work in Christian Europe
• The Situation in AShkenazic Jewish Society
• Changes in the LEgal Status of Women
• WOMAN AS WIFE AND MOTHER AND HER ECONOMIC STATUS
• The Woman within Her Home
• Prostitution and Concubinage
• The Woman's Economic Status
• WOMEN'S CULTURE AND EDUCATION
• The Talmudic Heritage
• The Situation in Muslim Society
• The Situation in Christian Society
• The Stance of the Jewish Sages in the Middle Ages
• Learned Women
• Education of Women in Jewish Society
• Girls' Education and Erudition in Ashkenaz
• The Situation in Spain
• Education of Jewish Women in Italy and Sicily
• THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN RELIGIOUS LIFE AND IN FAMILY CEREMONIES
• The Biblical and Talmudic Heritage
• The Role of Women in Relgious Life in Christian Europe
• The PErformance of Time-Linked Positive Commandments
• Women in the Synagogue
• Women in the Celebration of Passover
• Women Circumcisers
• Women as Ritual Slaughterers
• Fast Days and Acts of Charity by Women
• REfraining from Eating Meat During the Season of Mourning
• Women as Bearers of Halakhic Traditions
• The Role of Women in Family Ceremonies
• WOMEN'S ROLE IN JEWISH MARTYRDOM IN EUROPE IN THE ELEVENTH TO THIRTEENTH CENTURIES
• The DEscriptions of Women in Chronicles about the Pogroms
• The Historical Reliability of the Descriptions in the Chronicles
• The Role of Women in Jewish Martyrdom According to Christian Sources
• The "Beauty" and "Purity" of the Women
• Kiddush Hashem and the Cultural and Social Status of the Women
• The Descrip=tion in the Chronicles and the Public Image
• Between the Chronicles of 1096 and Sfer Zekhirah
• VIOLENCE TOWARD WOMEN
• The Tamuldic Tradition
• The Situation in Christian and Muslim Society
• The Position of the Babylonian Geonim
• The Position of the Spanish Sages
• Maimonides' Position
• The Situation in France and Italy
• The Situation in Germany
• Wife Beating for "Education"
• Summary: Between Theory and Reality
• THE DIVORCÉE AND THE "REBELLIOUS WIFE"
• The Biblical and Talmudic Heritage
• The Attitude of Medieval Jewish Sages to Divorce
• Grounds for Divorce
• The Change at the Beginning of the Geonic Period
• The Retreat from the Taqqanah of Moredet during the Twelfth Century
• The Proliferation of Divorce in Ashkenaz in the Thirteenth Century and Thereafter
• "Rebellion" of Women in Christian Society
• Divorce in Spain
• The Attitude of the Divorcée
• THE WIDOW AND THE "MURDEROUS WIFE"
• The Large Number of Widows
• The Biblical and Talmudic Heritage
• The Situation in Non-Jewish Society
• Life Expectancy in Europe
• The Situation in Jewish Society: The Attitude to the Widow's Remarriage
• The Commonness of Widowhood and its Social Significance
• The Widow's Economic Rights
• The "Murderous Wife" (Qatlanit)
• SUMMARY: WOMAN'S STATUS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
• The Positive Changes
• Negative Changes
• The Silencing of Creativity
• Between "Pious" and "Rebellious" Women
• NOTES
• GLOSSARY
• BIBLIOGRAPHY
• IND

Sat, 2 Dec 2017 14:43:00 -0500